1. Primary Focus:
- Industry 3.0: Introduction of digital technology and automation in production.
- Industry 4.0: Integration of digital technologies, such as IoT and AI, to create smart, interconnected systems.
- Industry 5.0: Emphasis on human-machine collaboration and personalization, marrying technological precision with human creativity.
2. Key Technologies:
- Industry 3.0: Digital electronics, programmable logic controllers, early computer systems.
- Industry 4.0: Internet of Things (IoT), Artificial Intelligence (AI), Cloud Computing, Big Data & Analytics.
- Industry 5.0: Advanced AI with emotional intelligence, Human-machine collaboration tools, Augmented Reality (AR) & Virtual Reality (VR), and personalized production techniques.
3. Production Approach:
- Industry 3.0: Automation of repetitive tasks using computers and early robots.
- Industry 4.0: Smart factories with self-monitoring, predictive maintenance, and interconnected machinery.
- Industry 5.0: Tailored and sustainable production with machines supporting human workers, rather than replacing them.
4. Key Benefits:
- Industry 3.0: Increased efficiency and precision; introduction to data-driven decision-making.
- Industry 4.0: Enhanced automation, real-time monitoring, adaptability, and remote operations.
- Industry 5.0: Greater personalization, human-centric workplaces, enhanced creativity, and sustainability.
5. Main Challenges:
- Industry 3.0: Technological unfamiliarity, initial high costs, concerns over job losses.
- Industry 4.0: Cybersecurity threats, job displacement, complex system management.
- Industry 5.0: Ethical concerns, skill evolution, economic disparities, and integration issues.
6. Human Involvement:
- Industry 3.0: Shift from manual to computer-based tasks.
- Industry 4.0: Humans oversee automated processes, with machines taking the forefront.
- Industry 5.0: Renewed emphasis on human value, with machines designed to complement and collaborate with human workers.
While each industrial phase has its distinct characteristics, they represent a continuum of technological evolution. Industry 3.0 laid the foundation with digitalization, Industry 4.0 took it further with interconnectivity, and Industry 5.0 aims to harmonize technological progress with human values and creativity.